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about 25,000 are said to have been supported by the city's wool industry: in 1345 Florence was the scene of an attempted strike by wool combers (ciompi), who in 1378 rose up in a brief revolt against oligarchic rule in the Revolt of the Ciompi.

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bill of exchange, double-entry bookkeeping system) to medieval fairs.

This period also saw the eclipse of Florence's formerly powerful rival Pisa (defeated by Genoa in 1284 and subjugated by Florence in 1406), and the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice (1293).

The city attracts millions of tourists each year, and the Historic Centre of Florence was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982.

The city is noted for its culture, Renaissance art and architecture and monuments.

Catherine de Medici married king Henry II of France and, after his death in 1559, reigned as regent in France.

Marie de' Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future king Louis XIII.The Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737.Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553 Eastern Roman Empire 553-568 Lombard Kingdom 570–773 Carolingian Empire 774–797 Regnum Italiae 797–1001 March of Tuscany 1002–1115 Republic of Florence 1115–1532 Duchy of Florence 1532–1569 Grand Duchy of Tuscany 1569–1801 Kingdom of Etruria 1801–1807 First French Empire 1807–1815 Grand Duchy of Tuscany 1815–1859 United Provinces of Central Italy 1859–1860 Kingdom of Italy 1861–1946 Italian Republic 1946–present which was destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the populares faction in Rome.From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy.The Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini.Situated along the Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the north, and within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement quickly became an important commercial centre.

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